- 15th Century: Printing Press, Guttenberg’s Press, Church and University
- 16th Century: Fragmentation, religious disunity
- 17th Century: Pamphleteers, newspapers, periodicals, allows for knowledge without experience, constitute “the public”. Made up of middle class (bourgeois), literate, intellectuals.
- Mass Media
- 18th Century: liberal, intellectual elite challenging government.
- 19th Century: Industrial Revolution, political elite claim that increasing knowledge would lead to political instability and disintegration of moral fabric of society. Victorianism. Still mostly print.
- Communication and Entertainment
- Telegraph (1837), Transatlantic Cable (1866)
- Telephone (1876), Wireless (1887)
- Transatlantic Radio Broadcast (1901), Motion Film (1905), Transatlantic Voice Radio Broadcast (1906)
- Television (1923), First TV Broadcast (1937)
- First Computer and Transistor (1948)
- Birth of the Internet (1969)
- The Tool shed Home
- VCR/Beta (1975)
- Video Cameras/Camcorders (1982)
- Cell Phones (1985)
- The Highway
- Mobile telephones (1986)
- Worldwide Web, Web 1.0 (1990)
- The Graphical Browser (1993)
- Web 2.0 (2004)
- Social Media; Enterprise 2.0 (2006)
Adapted from (Briggs & Burke, 2002); (Burgess & Green, 2009); (Fang, 1997); (Cormode & Krishnamurthy, 2008); (Harrison & Barthel, 2009).
Briggs, A., & Burke, P. (2002). A social history of media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Burgess, J., & Green, J. (2009). Youtube: Digital Media and Society Series. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Cormode, G., & Krishnamurthy, B. (2008). Key differences between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0. First Monday , 13 (6).
Fang, I. E. (1997). A history of mass communication: six information revolutions. Boston, MA: Focal Press.
Harrison, T. M., & Barthel, B. (2009). Wielding new media in Web 2.0: exploring the history of engagement with the collaborative construction of media products. New Media Society , 155-178.